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ORADEBUG DOC

Oracle made big improvements to its diagnosability infrastructure in database version 11g. Every major kernel function and component has been instrumented with the new dbk*/dbg* debug functions and can be traced with ORADEBUG.

Before 11g, the previous Oracle diagnostic events infrastructure had much more limited syntax and usage.

Very shortly, the new 11g kernel debug & diagnostics infrastructure allows you to be much more precise when tracing & dumping diagnostic info. For example, the below example would dump SQL Trace only when running the SQL with SQLID 32cqz71gd8wy3 below and the pgadep 0 means that only trace when the SQL is executed from top level (directly by application) as opposed to from recursive context (like SQL fired from PL/SQL or data dictionary queries where dep>0 in SQL trace):

SQL> alter session set events 'sql_trace[SQL: 32cqz71gd8wy3] {pgadep: exactdepth 0} plan_stat=all_executions,wait=true,bind=true';

Session altered.

The plan_stat=all executions above is yet another 11g improvement, which dumps the STAT# lines (execution plan & execution statistics from last execution) at every execution of the cursor as opposed to only when the cursor is closed.

For low-level diagnostics, you can even enable tracing/actions only when the current function call stack contains a specific function name (or prefix), like in below case I only trace things happening in the execute phase of the SQL (opiexe stands for Oracle Program Interface Execute):

SQL> alter session set events 'sql_trace[SQL: 32cqz71gd8wy3] {pgadep: exactdepth 0} {callstack: fname opiexe} plan_stat=all_executions,wait=true,bind=true';

Session altered.



Another example enables kernel tracing (not SQL trace) for all Oracle components which are part of the RDBMS.SQL_Transform component family. The tracing is only done when the SQL statement executed has SQLID 32cqz71gd8wy3. I have enabled tracing to a tracefile (if the components have anything to trace) and additionally I have enabled three additional actions every time any events in SQL_Transform are hit and the SQLID scope is met. 

Note that this syntax is experimental here, it's not widely used and this particular case below probably dumps a lot of detailed info, which is not useful for everyday regular troubleshooting tasks. I wrote such syntax for illustrating the full power of the new debug infrastructure:

SQL> alter session set events 'trace[RDBMS.SQL_Transform] [SQL: 32cqz71gd8wy3] disk=high RDBMS.query_block_dump(1) processstate(1) callstack(1)';

Session altered.

Now the optimizer SQL Transformation engine tracing would happen only when executing the SQLID mentioned above and additionally three dumps (query_block_dump,processstate and current call stack) are performed every time this SQLID execution hits events in the SQL_Transform module.

Here's the full syntax of what you can use starting from 11g onwards, you can extract all this yourself by using the new command ORADEBUG DOC:


There's a new command ORADEBUG DOC for showing all the new syntax that oradebug supports:

ORADEBUG DOC


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC

Internal Documentation
**********************

  EVENT                           Help on events (syntax, event list, ...)
  COMPONENT       [<comp_name>]   List all components or describe <comp_name>


ORADEBUG DOC EVENT

The syntax immediately below shows that it's possible to assign actions (action_list) to events (functions, code locations in Oracle) and make these actions fire only in specific conditions (when event scope (SQL_ID) and filter conditions are matched).

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT

Event Help:
***********

  Formal Event Syntax
  --------------------
    <event_spec>   ::= '<event_id> [<event_scope>]
                                   [<event_filter_list>]
                                   [<event_parameters>]
                                   [<action_list>]
                                   [off]'

    <event_id>     ::= <event_name | number>[<target_parameters>]

    <event_scope>  ::= [<scope_name>: scope_parameters]

    <event_filter> ::= {<filter_name>: filter_parameters}

    <action>       ::= <action_name>(action_parameters)

    <*_parameters> ::= <parameter_name> = <value>[, ]


  Some Examples
  -------------
    * Set event 10235 level 1:
      alter session set events '10235';

    * Set events SQL_TRACE (a.k.a. 10046) level 1:
      alter session set events 'sql_trace';

    * Turn off event SQL_TRACE:
      alter session set events 'sql_trace off';

    * Set events SQL_TRACE with parameter <plan_stat> set to 'never'
      and parameter <wait> set to 'true':
      alter session set events 'sql_trace wait=true, plan_stat=never';

    * Trace in-memory the SQL_MONITOR component (the target) and all its
      sub-components at level high. Get high resolution time for each
      trace:
      alter session set events 'trace[sql_mon.*] memory=high,
                                                 get_time=highres';

    * On-disk trace PX servers p000 and p005 for components 'sql_mon'
      and 'sql_optimizer' (including sub-components) at level highest:
      alter system set events 'trace[sql_mon | sql_optimizer.*]
                                    {process: pname = p000 | p005}';

    * Same as above but only when SQL id '7ujay4u33g337' is executed:
      alter system set events 'trace[sql_mon | sql_optimizer.*]
                                    [sql: 7ujay4u33g337]
                                    {process: pname = p000 | p005}';

    * Execute an action immediatly by using 'immediate' for the event
      name:
      alter session set events 'immediate eventdump(system)'

    * Create an incident labeled 'table_missing' when external error
      942 is signaled by process id 14534:
      alter session set events '942 {process: 14534}
                                    incident(table_missing)';


  Notes
  -----
    * Implicit parameter level is 1 by default
      e.g. '10053' is same as '10053 level 1'

    * Event target (see [<target_parameters>] construct) is only
      supported by specific events like the TRACE[] event

    * <event_scope> and/or <event_filter> are constructs
      that can be used for any event

    * Same event can be set simultaneously for a different scope or
      target but not for different filters.

    * '|' character can be used to select multiple targets, scope or
      filters.

      E.g. 'sql_trace [sql: sql_id=g3yc1js3g2689 | sql_id=7ujay4u33g337]'

    * '=' sign is optional in <*_parameters>

      E.g. 'sql_trace level 12';

    * Like PL/SQL, no need to specify the parameter name for target,
      scope, filters and action. Resolution is done by position in
      that case:

      E.g. 'sql_trace [sql: g3yc1js3g2689 | 7ujay4u33g337]'


  Help sub-topics
  ---------------

    NAME    [<event_name>]      List all events or describe <event_name>
    SCOPE   [<scope_name>]      List all scopes or describe <scope_name>
    FILTER  [<filter_name>]     List all filters or describe <filter_name>
    ACTION  [<action_name>]     List all actions or describe <action_name>



ORADEBUG DOC EVENT NAME


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT NAME

Events in library DIAG:
------------------------------
trace[]              Main event to control UTS tracing
disable_dde_action[] Event used by DDE to disable actions
ams_trace[]          Event to dump ams performance trace records
ams_rowsrc_trace[]   Event to dump ams row source tracing
sweep_verification   Event to enable sweep file verification
enable_xml_inc_staging Event to enable xml incident staging format

Events in library RDBMS:
------------------------------
alert_text           event for textual alerts
trace_recursive      event to force tracing recursive SQL statements
clientid_overwrite   event to overwrite client_identifier when client_info is set
sql_monitor          event to force monitoring SQL statements
eventsync_tac        Event posted from events syncing tac
sql_trace            event for sql trace
pmon_startup         startup of pmon process
background_startup   startup of background processes
db_open_begin        start of db open operation

Events in library GENERIC:
------------------------------
kg_event[]           Support old error number events (use err# for short)

Events in library CLIENT:
------------------------------
oci_trace            event for oci trace

Events in library LIBCELL:
------------------------------
libcell_stat         libcell statistics level specification
cellclnt_skgxp_trc_ops Controls to trace SKGXP operations
cellclnt_high_lat_ops Control to trace High-latency I/O operations

Events in library ADVCMP:
------------------------------
arch_comp_level[]    arch_comp_level[<ulevel, 1-7>]
ccmp_debug           columnar compression debug event
ccmp_align           columnar compression enable alignment
ccmp_countstar       columnar compression enable count(*) optimization
ccmp_dumpunaligned   columnar compression dump dbas of unaligned CUs


ORADEBUG DOC EVENT NAME <event_name>

This syntax allows you to get more information about parameters for some events (especially these ones suffixed with [ ] in above output):

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT NAME sql_trace

sql_trace: event for sql trace

Usage
-------
sql_trace
   wait            < false | true >,
   bind            < false | true >,
   plan_stat       < never | first_execution | all_executions >,
   level           <ub4>



SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT NAME trace

trace: Main event to control UTS tracing

Usage
-------
trace [ component       <string> ]
   disk            < default | lowest | low | medium | high | highest | disable >,
   memory          < default | lowest | low | medium | high | highest | disable >,
   get_time        < disable | default | seq | highres | seq_highres >,
   get_stack       < disable | default | force >,
   operation       <string>,
   function        <string>,
   file            <string>,
   line            <ub4>


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT NAME kg_event

kg_event: Support old error number events (use err# for short)

Usage
-------
kg_event [ ]
   level           <ub4>,
   lifetime        <ub4>,
   armcount        <ub4>,
   traceinc        <ub4>,
   forever         <ub4>


ORADEBUG DOC EVENT SCOPE


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT SCOPE

Event scopes in library RDBMS:
------------------------------
SQL[]                sql scope for RDBMS


ORADEBUG DOC EVENT SCOPE SQL

The scope specifier allows you to fire events and trace only when Oracle is executing a specific SQL_ID:

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT SCOPE SQL

SQL: sql scope for RDBMS

Usage
-------
[SQL:  sql_id          <string> ]


ORADEBUG DOC EVENT FILTER

The event filter allows you to fire event actions only when certain event filter conditions are met, like only when a specific (background) process hits the event, when a specific error condition is raised or when a specific function is in the call stack:

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT FILTER

Event filters in library DIAG:
------------------------------
occurence            filter to implement counting for event checks
callstack            filter to only fire an event when a function is on the stack
tag                  filter to only fire an event when a tag is set

Event filters in library RDBMS:
------------------------------
process              filter to set events only for a specific process
pgadep               filter to only fire an event when the pgadep matches a given value or falls within a range

Event filters in library GENERIC:
------------------------------
errarg               filter to set error events only for a specific error argument


You can get more documentation for each item listed in the above output:

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT FILTER occurence

occurence: filter to implement counting for event checks

Usage
-------
{occurence:  start_after     <ub4>,
             end_after       <ub4> }


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT FILTER callstack

callstack: filter to only fire an event when a function is on the stack

Usage
-------
{callstack:  fname           <string>,
             fprefix         <string>,
             maxdepth        <ub4> }


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT FILTER tag

tag: filter to only fire an event when a tag is set

Usage
-------
{tag:  tname           <string> }


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT FILTER process

process: filter to set events only for a specific process

Usage
-------
{process:  ospid           <string>,
           orapid          <ub4>,
           pname           <string> }


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT FILTER pgadep

pgadep: filter to only fire an event when the pgadep matches a given value or falls within a range

Usage
-------
{pgadep:  exactDepth      <ub4>,
          lessThan        <ub4>,
          greaterThan     <ub4> }


SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT FILTER errarg

errarg: filter to set error events only for a specific error argument

Usage
-------
{errarg:  arg1            <string>,
          arg2            <string>,
          arg3            <string>,
          arg4            <string>,
          arg5            <string>,
          arg6            <string>,
          arg7            <string>,
          arg8            <string> }


ORADEBUG DOC EVENT ACTION

Finally, the action keyword defines what to do when the event has been hit:

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT ACTION

Actions in library DIAG:
---------------------------
dumpFrameContext      - Dump Frame Context contents
dumpBuckets          
kgsfdmp              
dumpDiagCtx          
dumpDbgecPopLoc      
dumpDbgecMarks       
dumpGenralConfiguration 
dumpADRLockTable     
act1                 
action1              
action2              
UTDumpGC             
dbgvci_action_signal_crash 

Actions in library RDBMS:
---------------------------
incident              - Create an Incident
sqlmon_dump           - SQL Monitor Dump SGA Action
flashfreeze          
oradebug              - debug process using ORADEBUG
debugger              - debug process using System Debugger
debug                
- alias for 'debugger' - debug  process using System Debugger
crash                 - crash the instance
eventdump             - list events that are set in the group
kdlut_bucketdump_action 
kzxt_dump_action     
dumpKernelDiagState  
HMCHECK              (async)
DATA_BLOCK_INTEGRITY_CHECK (async)
CF_BLOCK_INTEGRITY_CHECK (async)
DB_STRUCTURE_INTEGRITY_CHECK (async)
REDO_INTEGRITY_CHECK (async)
TRANSACTION_INTEGRITY_CHECK (async)
SQL_TESTCASE_REC     (async)
SQL_TESTCASE_REC_DATA (async)
ORA_12751_DUMP       
sqladv_dump_dumpctx  
ORA_4030_DUMP        
- dump summary of PGA memory usage, largest allocations
kcfis_action          - kcfis actions
exadata_dump_modvers  - Exadata dump module versions
QUERY_BLOCK_DUMP      - Debug action for dumping a qbcdef tree
ASM_MOUNT_FAIL_CHECK (async)
ASM_ALLOC_FAIL_CHECK (async)
ASM_ADD_DISK_CHECK   (async)
ASM_FILE_BUSY_CHECK  (async)
TRACE_BUFFER_ON       - Allocate trace output buffer for ksdwrf()
TRACE_BUFFER_OFF     
- Flush and deallocate trace output buffer for ksdwrf()
LATCHES               - Dump Latches
XS_SESSION_STATE      - Dump XS session state
PROCESSSTATE          - Dump process state
SYSTEMSTATE           - Dump system state
INSTANTIATIONSTATE    - Dump instantiation state
CONTEXTAREA           - Dump cursor context area
HEAPDUMP             
- Dump memory heap (1-PGA, 2-SGA, 4-UGA, +1024-Content)
POKE_LENGTH           - Set length before poking value
POKE_VALUE            - Poke a value into memory
POKE_VALUE0           - Poke 0 value into memory
GLOBAL_AREA          
- Dump fixed global area(s) (1=PGA/2=SGA/3=UGA, add +8 for pointer content)
REALFREEDUMP          - Dump PGA real free memory allocator state
FLUSH_JAVA_POOL       - Flush Java pool
PGA_DETAIL_GET       
- Ask process to publish PGA detail info (level is pid)
PGA_DETAIL_DUMP      
- Dump PGA detail information for process (level is pid) 
PGA_DETAIL_CANCEL     - Free PGA detail request (level is pid)
PGA_SUMMARY           - Summary of PGA memory usage, largest allocations
MODIFIED_PARAMETERS   - Dump parameters modifed by session (level unused)
ERRORSTACK           
- Dump state (ksedmp). Use INCIDENT action to create incident 
CALLSTACK             - Dump call stack (level > 1 to dump args)
RECORD_CALLSTACK     
- Record or dump call stack, level = #frames (level += 1000000 go to trc)
BG_MESSAGES           - Dump routine for background messages
ENQUEUES             
- Dump enqueues (level >=2 adds resources, >= 3 adds locks)
KSTDUMPCURPROC       
- Dump current process trace buffer (1 for all events)
KSTDUMPALLPROCS      
- Dump all processes trace buffers (1 for all events)
KSTDUMPALLPROCS_CLUSTER 
- Dump all processes (cluster wide) trace buffers (1 for all events)
KSKDUMPTRACE          - Dumping KSK KST tracing (no level)
DBSCHEDULER           - Dump ressource manager state
LDAP_USER_DUMP        - Dump LDAP user mode
LDAP_KERNEL_DUMP      - Dump LDAP kernel mode
DUMP_ALL_OBJSTATS     - Dump database objects statistics
DUMPGLOBALDATA        - Rolling migration DUMP GLOBAL DATA
HANGANALYZE           - Hang analyze
HANGANALYZE_PROC      - Hang analyze current process
HANGANALYZE_GLOBAL    - Hang analyze system
GES_STATE             - Dump DML state
OCR                   - OCR client side tracing
CSS                   - CSS client side tracing
CRS                   - CRS client side tracing
SYSTEMSTATE_GLOBAL    - Perform cluster wide system state dump (via DIAG)
DUMP_ALL_COMP_GRANULE_ADDRS 
- MMAN dump all granule addresses of all components (no level)
DUMP_ALL_COMP_GRANULES 
- MMAN dump all granules of all components (1 for partial list)
DUMP_ALL_REQS        
- MMAN dump all pending memory requests to alert log
DUMP_TRANSFER_OPS     - MMAN dump transfer and resize operations history
DUMP_ADV_SNAPSHOTS   
- MMAN dump all snapshots of advisories (level unused)
CONTROLF              - DuMP control file info
FLUSH_CACHE          
- Flush buffer cache without shuting down the instance
BUFFERS               - Dump all buffers in the buffer cache at level l
SET_TSN_P1           
- Set tablespace # for buffer dump (level = ts# + 1)
BUFFER               
- Dump all buffers for full relative dba <level> at lvl 10
BC_SANITY_CHECK      
- Run buffer cache sanity check (level = 0xFF for full)
SET_NBLOCKS           - Set number of blocks for range reuse checks
CHECK_ROREUSE_SANITY  - Check range/object reuse sanity (level = ts#)
DUMP_PINNED_BUFFER_HISTORY 
- kcb Dump pinned buffers history (level = # buffers)
REDOLOGS              - Dump all online logs according to the level
LOGHIST              
- Dump the log history (1: dump earliest/latest entries, >1: dump most recent 2**level entries)
REDOHDR               - Dump redo log headers
LOCKS                 - Dump every lock element to the trace file
GC_ELEMENTS           - Dump every lock element to the trace file
FILE_HDRS             - Dump database file headers
KRB_TRACE             - Set krb trace options
FBINC                
- Dump flashback logs of the current incarnation and all its ancestors.
FBHDR                 - Dump all the flashback logfile headers
FLASHBACK_GEN         - Dump flashback generation state
KTPR_DEBUG           
- Parallel txn recovery (1: cleanup check, 2: dump ptr reco ctx, 3: dump recent smon runs)
DUMP_TEMP             - Dump temp space management state (no level)
DROP_SEGMENTS         - Drop unused temporary segments
TREEDUMP             
- Dump an index tree rooted at dba BLOCKDBA (<level>)
KDLIDMP               - Dump 11glob inodes states (level = what to dump)
ROW_CACHE             - Dump all cache objects
LIBRARY_CACHE        
- Dump the library cache (level > 65535 => level = obj @)
CURSORDUMP            - Dump session cursors
CURSOR_STATS          - Dump all statistics information for cursors
SHARED_SERVER_STATE   - Dump shared server state
LISTENER_REGISTRATION  - Dump listener registration state
JAVAINFO              - Dump Oracle Java VM
KXFPCLEARSTATS        - Clear all Parallel Query messaging statistics
KXFPDUMPTRACE         - Dump Parallel Query in-memory traces
KXFXSLAVESTATE       
- Dump PX slave state (1: uga; 2: current cursor state; 3: all cursors)
KXFXCURSORSTATE       - Dump PX slave cursor state
WORKAREATAB_DUMP      - Dump SQL Memory Manager workarea table
OBJECT_CACHE          - Dump the object cache
SAVEPOINTS            - Dump savepoints
RULESETDUMP           - Dump rule set
FAILOVER              - Set condition failover immediate
OLAP_DUMP             - Dump OLAP state
AWR_FLUSH_TABLE_ON   
- Enable flush of table id <level> (ids in X$KEWRTB)
AWR_FLUSH_TABLE_OFF  
- Disable flush of table id <level> (ids in X$KEWRTB)
ASHDUMP               - Dump ASH data (level = # of minutes)
HM_FW_TRACE           - DIAG health monitor set tracing level
IR_FW_TRACE           - DIAG intelligent repair set/clear trace
HEAPDUMP_ADDR        
- Heap dump by address routine (level > 1 dump content)
POKE_ADDRESS          - Poke specified address (level = value)
CURSORTRACE          
- Trace cursor by hash value (hash value is address)
RULESETDUMP_ADDR      - Dump rule set by address

Actions in library GENERIC:
---------------------------
xdb_dump_buckets     
dumpKGERing           - Dump contents of KGE ring buffer

Actions in library CLIENT:
---------------------------
kpuActionDefault      - dump OCI data
kpuActionSignalCrash 
- crash and produce a core dump (if supported and possible)
kpudpaActionDpapi     - DataPump dump action


You can get more details about some actions by running the doc command for the library.action:

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC EVENT ACTION RDBMS.query_block_dump
QUERY_BLOCK_DUMP 
- Debug action for dumping a qbcdef tree
Usage
-------
QUERY_BLOCK_DUMP( level           <ub4>)


ORADEBUG DOC COMPONENT

You can trace and set actions for Oracle kernel components (if you don't know exact function name which you want to trace). 

The following command would apply the actions query_block_dump, processstate dump and call stack dump only when executing code in RDBMS.SQL_Transform module (the query transformation engine) and only when the SQL ID executed is 32cqz71gd8wy3. Disk=high allows tracing to disk (if that component is able to trace anything).

SQL> alter session set events 'trace[RDBMS.SQL_Transform] [SQL: 32cqz71gd8wy3] disk=high RDBMS.query_block_dump(1) processstate(1) callstack(1)';

Session altered.

You can check what sub-components are there under the SQL_Transform component (and you can trace each of these individually if you like):

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC COMPONENT RDBMS.SQL_Transform

  SQL_Transform                SQL Transformation (kkq, vop, nso)
    SQL_MVRW                   SQL Materialized View Rewrite
    SQL_VMerge                 SQL View Merging (kkqvm)
    SQL_Virtual                SQL Virtual Column (qksvc, kkfi)


All (registered) components in Oracle kernel can be listed like this:

SQL> ORADEBUG DOC COMPONENT


Components in library DIAG:
--------------------------
  diag_uts                     Unified Tracing Service (dbgt, dbga)
    uts_vw                     UTS viewer toolkit (dbgtp, dbgtn)
  diag_adr                     Automatic Diagnostic Repository (dbgr)
    ams_comp                   ADR Meta-data Repository (dbgrm)
    ame_comp                   ADR Export/Import Services (dbgre)
    ami_comp                   ADR Incident Meta-data Services (dbgri)
    diag_ads                   Diagnostic Directory and File Services (dbgrf, sdbgrf, sdbgrfu, sdbgrfb)
  diag_hm                      Diagnostic Health Monitor ((null))
  diag_ips                     Diagnostic Incident Packaging System ((null))
  diag_dde                     Diagnostic Data Extractor (dbge)
  diag_fmwk                    Diagnostic Framework (dbgc)
    diag_ilcts                 Diagnostic Inter-Library Compile-time Service (dbgf)
    diag_attr                  Diagnostic Attributes Management ((null))
    diag_comp                  Diagnostic Components Management ((null))
  diag_testp                   Diagnostic component test parent (dbgt)
    diag_testc1                Diagnostic component test child 1 ((null))
    diag_testc2                Diagnostic component test child 2 ((null))
  KGSD                         Kernel Generic Service Debugging (kgsd)
  diag_events                  Diagnostic Events (dbgd)
  diag_adl                     Diagnostic ARB Alert Log (dbgrl, dbgrlr)
  diag_vwk                     Diagnostic viewer toolkit (dbgv)
    diag_vwk_parser            Diagnostic viewer parser (dbgvp, dbgvl)
    diag_vwk_uts               Diagnostic viewer for UTS traces and files (dbgvf)
    diag_vwk_ams               Diagnostic viewer for AMS metadata (dbgvm)
    diag_vwk_ci                Diagnostic viewer for command line (dbgvci)
  kghsc                        KGHSC Compact Stream (kghsc)
  dbgxtk                       DBGXTK xml toolkit (dbgxtk)

Components in library RDBMS:
--------------------------
  SQL_Compiler                 SQL Compiler ((null))
    SQL_Parser                 SQL Parser (qcs)
    SQL_Semantic               SQL Semantic Analysis (kkm)
    SQL_Optimizer              SQL Optimizer ((null))
      SQL_Transform            SQL Transformation (kkq, vop, nso)
        SQL_MVRW               SQL Materialized View Rewrite ((null))
        SQL_VMerge             SQL View Merging (kkqvm)
        SQL_Virtual            SQL Virtual Column (qksvc, kkfi)
      SQL_APA                  SQL Access Path Analysis (apa)
      SQL_Costing              SQL Cost-based Analysis (kko, kke)
        SQL_Parallel_Optimization SQL Parallel Optimization (kkopq)
      SQL_Plan_Management      SQL Plan Managment (kkopm)
      SQL_Plan_Directive       SQL Plan Directive (qosd)
    SQL_Code_Generator         SQL Code Generator (qka, qkn, qke, kkfd, qkx)
      SQL_Parallel_Compilation SQL Parallel Compilation (kkfd)
      SQL_Expression_Analysis  SQL Expression Analysis (qke)
    MPGE                       MPGE (qksctx)
    ADS                        ADS (kkoads)
  SQL_Execution                SQL Execution (qer, qes, kx, qee)
    Parallel_Execution         Parallel Execution (qerpx, qertq, kxfr, kxfx, kxfq, kxfp)
      PX_Messaging             Parallel Execution Messaging (kxfp)
      PX_Group                 Parallel Execution Slave Group (kxfp)
      PX_Affinity              Parallel Affinity (ksxa)
      PX_Buffer                Parallel Execution Buffers (kxfpb)
      PX_Granule               Parallel Execution Granules (kxfr)
      PX_Control               Parallel Execution Control (kxfx)
      PX_Table_Queue           Parallel Execution Table Queues (kxfq)
      PX_Scheduler             Parallel Execution Scheduler (qerpx)
      PX_Queuing               Parallel Execution Queuing (kxfxq)
      PX_Blackbox              Parallel Execution Blackbox (kxf)
      PX_PTL                   Parallel Execution PTL (kxft)
      PX_Expr_Eval             Parallel Execution Expression Evaluation ((null))
      PX_Selector              Parallel Execution PX Selector (qerpsel)
      PX_Overhead              Parallel Execution Overhead (qerpx, kxfr, kxfx, kxfp)
    Bloom_Filter               Bloom Filter (qerbl, qesbl)
    Vector_Processing          Vector Processing ((null))
      Vector_Translate         Vector Translate (qkaxl, qerxl, qesxl, qesxlp, qerrc)
      Vector_Aggregate         Vector Aggregate (qergv, qesgv)
      Vector_PX                Vector PX (qesxlp, qerxl)
    Time_Limit                 Query Execution Time Limit (opiexe, qerst)
  PGA_Manage                   PGA Memory Management ((null))
    PGA_Compile                PGA Memory Compilation ((null))
    PGA_IMM                    PGA Memory Instance Manage ((null))
    PGA_CMM                    PGA Memory Cursor Manage ((null))
    PGA_ADV                    PGA Memory Advisor ((null))
  rdbms_dde                    RDBMS Diagnostic Data Extractor (dbke)
  VOS                          VOS (ks)
    hang_analysis              Hang Analysis (ksdhng)
    background_proc            Background Processes (ksb, ksbt)
    system_param               System Parameters (ksp, kspt)
    ksu                        Kernel Service User (ksu)
      ksutac                   KSU Timeout Actions ((null))
    ksv_trace                  Kernel Services Slave Management (ksv)
    file                       File I/O (ksfd, ksfdaf)
  sql_mon                      SQL Monitor (keswx)
    sql_mon_deamon             SQL Monitor Deamon ((null))
    sql_mon_query              SQL Monitor Query ((null))
  CACHE_RCV                    Cache Recovery (kcv, kct, kcra, kcrp, kcb)
    DLF                        Delayed Log Force ((null))
  DIRPATH_LOAD                 Direct Path Load (kl, kdbl, kpodp)
    DIRPATH_LOAD_BIS           Direct Path Kpodpbis Routine (kpodp)
  RAC                          Real Application Clusters ((null))
    GES                        Global Enqueue Service ((null))
      KSI                      Kernel Service Instance locking (ksi)
      RAC_ENQ                  Enqueue Operations ((null))
      DD                       GES Deadlock Detection ((null))
      RAC_BCAST                Enqueue Broadcast Operations ((null))
      RAC_FRZ                  DLM-Client Freeze/Unfreeze (kjfz)
      KJOE                     DLM Omni Enqueue service (kjoe)
    GCS                        Global Cache Service (kjb)
      GCS_BSCN                 Broadcast SCN (kjb, kcrfw)
      GCS_READMOSTLY           GCS Read-mostly (kjb)
      GCS_READER_BYPASS        GCS Reader Bypass (kjb)
      GCS_DELTAPUSH            GCS Delta Push (kjb)
    GSIPC                      Global Enqueue/Cache Service IPC ((null))
    RAC_RCFG                   Reconfiguration ((null))
    RAC_DRM                    Dynamic Remastering ((null))
    RAC_MRDOM                  Multiple Recovery Domains ((null))
    CGS                        Cluster Group Services (kjxg)
    CGSIMR                     Instance Membership Recovery (kjxgr)
    RAC_WLM                    Work Load Management (wlm)
    RAC_MLMDS                  RAC Multiple LMS (kjm)
    RAC_KA                     Kernel Accelerator (kjk)
    RAC_LT                     RAC Latch Usage ((null))
  db_trace                     RDBMS server only tracing ((null))
  kst                          server trace layer tracing (kst)
  ddedmp                       RDBMS Diagnostic Data Extractor Dumper (dbked)
  cursor                       Shared Cursor (kxs, kks)
    Bind_Capture               Bind Capture Tracing ((null))
  KSM                          Kernel Service Memory (ksm)
  KSE                          Kernel Service Error Manager (kse)
  explain                      SQL Explain Plan (xpl)
  rdbms_event                  RDBMS Events (dbkd)
  LOB_INODE                    Lob Inode (kdli)
  rdbms_adr                    RDBMS ADR (dbkr)
  ASM                          Automatic Storage Management (kf)
    KFK                        KFK (kfk)
      KFKIO                    KFK IO (kfkio)
      KFKSB                    KFK subs (kfksubs)
    KFN                        ASM Networking subsystem (kfn)
      KFNU                     ASM Umbillicus (kfnm, kfns, kfnb)
      KFNS                     ASM Server networking (kfns)
      KFNC                     ASM Client networking (kfnc)
      KFNOR                    KFN orion (kfnor)
    KFIS                       ASM Intelligent Storage interfaces (kfis)
    KFM                        ASM Node Monitor Interface Implementation (kfm)
      KFMD                     ASM Node Monitor Layer for Diskgroup Registration (kfmd)
      KFMS                     ASM Node Monitor Layers Support Function Interface (kfms)
    KFFB                       ASM Metadata Block (kffb)
    KFFD                       ASM Metadata Directory (kffd)
    KFZ                        ASM Zecurity subsystem (kfz)
    KFC                        ASM Cache (kfc)
    KFR                        ASM Recovery (kfr)
    KFE                        ASM attributes (kfe)
    KFDP                       ASM PST (kfdp)
    KFG                        ASM diskgroups (kfg)
    KFDS                       ASM staleness registry and resync (kfds)
    KFIA                       ASM Remote (kfia)
      KFIAS                    ASM IOServer (kfias)
      KFIAC                    ASM IOServer client (kfiac)
    KFFSCRUB                   ASM Scrubbing (kffscrub)
    KFIO                       ASM translation I/O layer (kfio)
    KFIOER                     ASM translation I/O layer (kfioer)
    KFV                        ASM Volume subsystem (kfv)
      KFVSU                    ASM Volume Umbillicus (kfvsu)
      KFVSD                    ASM Volume Background (kfvsd)
    KFDX                       ASM Exadata interface (kfdx)
    KFZP                       ASM Password File Layer (kfzp)
    KFA                        ASM Alias Operations (kfa)
    KFF                        KFF (kff)
    KFD                        ASM Disk (kfd)
      KFDVA                    ASM Virtual ATB (kfdva)
    KFTHA                      ASM Transparent High Availability (kftha)
  DML                          DML Drivers (ins, del, upd)
  Health_Monitor               Health Monitor ((null))
  DRA                          Data Repair Advisor ((null))
  DIRACC                       Direct access to fixed tables (kqfd)
  PART                         Partitioning (kkpo, qespc, qesma, kkpa, qergi)
    PART_IntPart               Interval Partitioning ((null))
    PART_Dictionary            Partitioning Dictionary (kkpod)
  LOB_KDLW                     Lob kdlw (kdlw)
  LOB_KDLX                     Lob xfm (kdlx)
  LOB_KDLXDUP                  Lob dedup (kdlxdup)
  LOB_KDLRCI                   Lob rci (kdlrci)
  LOB_KDLA                     SecureFile Archive (kdla)
  SQL_Manage                   SQL Manageability (kes)
    SQL_Manage_Infra           Other SQL Manageability Infrastructure (kesai, kesqs, kesatm, kesutl, kessi, keswat, keswts, keswsq)
    SQL_Tune                   SQL Tuning Advisor (kest)
      SQL_Tune_Auto            SQL Tuning Advisor (auto-tune) (kestsa)
        Auto_Tune_Opt          Auto Tuning Optimizer (kkoat)
      SQL_Tune_Index           SQL Tuning Advisor (index-tune) (kestsi)
      SQL_Tune_Plan            SQL Tuning Advisor (plan node analysis) (kestsp)
      SQL_Tune_Px              SQL Tuning Advisor (parallel execution) (kestsa)
      SQL_Tune_Fr              SQL Tuning Advisor (fix regression) (kestsa)
    SQL_Test_Exec              SQL Test-Execute Service (kestse)
    SQL_Perf                   SQL Performance Analyzer (kesp, keswpi)
    SQL_Repair                 SQL Repair Advisor (kesds)
    SQL_trace_parser           SQL trace parser (kesstp)
  SQL_Analyze                  SQL Analyze (qksan)
  SQL_DS                       SQL Dynamic Sampling Services (qksds)
  SQL_DDL                      SQL DDL (atb, ctc, dtb)
  RAT_WCR                      Real Application Test: Workload Capture and Replay (kec)
  Spatial                      Spatial (md)
    Spatial_IND                Spatial Indexing (mdr)
    Spatial_GR                 Spatial GeoRaster (mdgr)
  Text                         Text (dr)
  rdbms_gc                     RDBMS Diagnostic Generic Configuration (dbkgc)
  XS                           XS Fusion Security (kzx)
    XSSESSION                  XS Session (kzxs)
    XSPRINCIPAL                XS Principal (kzxu)
    XSSECCLASS                 XS Security Class (kzxc, kzxsp)
    XSXDS                      XS Data Security (kzxd)
    XSVPD                      XS VPD ((null))
    XSXDB_DEFAULT              XS XDB ((null))
    XS_MIDTIER                 XS Midtier (kpuzxs)
    XSNSTEMPLATE               XS Namespace template (kzxnt)
    XSACL                      XS ACL (kzxa)
    XSADM                      XS Administrative operation (kzxm, kzxi)
  AQ                           Streams Advanced Queuing (kwq, kkcn, kpon, kpoaq, kpce, kpcm, kpun, kpuaq, kws)
    AQ_DEQ                     Streams Advanced Queuing Dequeue (kwqid, kwqdl)
    AQ_BACK                    Streams Advanced Queueing Background (kwsbg, kwsbsm)
      AQ_TM                    Streams Advanced Queuing Time Manager (kwqit, kwqmn)
      AQ_CP                    Streams Advanced Queuing Cross Process (kwscp, kwsipc)
      AQ_LB                    Streams Advanced Queuing Load Balancer (kwslb, kwslbbg)
      AQ_NTFN                  Streams Advanced Queuing Notification (kpond, kkcne)
        AQ_NTFNP12C            Streams Advanced Queuing pre-12c Notification (kwqic)
      AQ_TMSQ                  Streams Advanced Queuing Time Manager for Sharded Queue (kwsbtm, kwsbjc, kwsbit)
    AQ_MC                      Streams Advanced Queuing Message Cache (kwsmc, kwssh, kwsmb, kwsmsg, kwssb, kwschnk, kwscb, kwsdqwm, kwssbsh)
    AQ_PT                      Streams Advanced Queuing Partitioning (kwspt)
    AQ_SUB                     Streams Advanced Queuing Subscription (kwssi, kwssa, kwsnsm, kwsnsme)
  KSFM                         Kernel Service File Mapping (ksfm)
  KXD                          Exadata specific Kernel modules (kxd)
    KXDAM                      Exadata Disk Auto Manage (kxdam)
    KCFIS                      Exadata Predicate Push (kcfis)
    NSMTIO                     Trace Non Smart I/O (nsmtio)
    KXDBIO                     Exadata Block level Intelligent Operations (kxdbio)
    KXDRS                      Exadata Resilvering Layer (kxdrs)
    KXDOFL                     Exadata Offload (kxdofl)
    KXDMISC                    Exadata Misc (kxdmisc)
    KXDCM                      Exadata Metrics Fixed Table Callbacks (kxdcm)
    KXDBC                      Exadata Backup Compression for Backup Appliance (kxdbc)
  DV                           Database Vault (kzv)
  ASO                          Advanced Security Option ((null))
    RADM                       Real-time Application-controlled Data Masking (kzradm)
  SVRMAN                       Server Manageability (ke)
    AWR                        Automatic Workload Repository (kew)
      ASH                      Active Session History (kewa)
      METRICS                  AWR metrics (kewm)
      REPOSITORY               AWR Repository (kewr)
        FLUSH                  AWR Snapshot Flush (kewrf)
        PURGE                  AWR Snapshot Purge (kewrps)
      AWRUTL                   AWR Utilities (kewu)
    AUTOTASK                   Automated Maintenance Tasks (ket)
    MMON                       MMON/MMNL Infrastructure (keb)
    SVRALRT                    Server Generated Alert Infrastructure (kel)
  OLS                          Oracle Label Security (zll)
  AUDITNG                      Database Audit Next Generation (aud, kza, kzft, aus, aop, ttp)
    Configuration              ANG Configuration (aud, kza, kzft, aus, aop, ttp)
    QueueWrite                 ANG Queue Write (aud, kza, kzft, aus, aop, ttp)
    FileWrite                  ANG File Write (aud, kza, kzft, aus, aop, ttp)
    RecordCompose              ANG Record Compose (aud, kza, kzft, aus, aop, ttp)
    DBConsolidation            ANG Database Consolidation (aud, kza, kzft, aus, aop, ttp)
    SYS_Auditing               ANG SYS Auditing (aud, kza, kzft, aus, aop, ttp)
  KJCI                         KJCI Cross Instance Call (kjci)
  KJZ                          KJZ - DIAG (kjz)
    KJZC                       KJZC - DIAG Communication Layer (kjzc)
    KJZD                       KJZD - DIAG Main Layer (kjzd)
    KJZF                       KJZF - DIAG Flow Control Layer (kjzf)
    KJZG                       KJZG - DIAG Group Services Layer (kjzg)
    KJZH                       KJZH - DIAG API Layer (kjzh)
    KJZM                       KJZM - DIAG Membership Layer (kjzm)
  SEC                          Security (kz)
    CBAC                       Code-Based Access Control (kzc)
  dbop                         DBOP monitoring (keomn)
    dbop_gen                   DBOP generic service (keomg)
      dbop_deamon              DBOP monitoring Deamon (keomg)
    dbop_comp                  DBOP composite type (keomm)
  em_express                   EM Express (kex)
  orarep                       orarep (ker)
  Data                         Data Layer (kd, ka)
    KDS                        Kernel Data Scan (kds)
      KDSRID                   Fetch By Rowid (kdsgrp, kdsgnp)
      KDSFTS                   Full Table Scan (kdsttgr, kdstgr)
      KDSCLU                   Cluster Table Scan (kdsics, kdscgr)
    KDI                        Index Layer (kdi)
      KDIZOLTP                 OLTP HIGH Index (kdizoltp)
      KDXOKCMP                 Auto Prefix Compressed Index (kdxokcmp)
      KDIL                     Index Load (kdil)
  RAT                          Real Application Testing (kec)
    RAT_MASK                   Real Application Testing: Masking (kesm, kecprm)
  BA                           Backup Appliance (kbrs)
  KBC                          BA Containers (kbc)
  connection_broker            Connection Broker (kmp)
  KRA                          Kernel Recovery Area Function (kra)
  KRA_SQL                      KRA SQL Tracing ((null))
  KRB                          Kernel Backup Restore (krb)
    KRB_THREAD                 KRBBPC Thread Switches ((null))
    KRB_IO                     KRB I/O ((null))
    KRB_INCR                   KRB Incremental Restore ((null))
    KRB_PERF                   KRB Performance Tracing ((null))
    KRB_BPOUTPUT               Detailed Backup Piece Output ((null))
    KRB_BPVAL                  Detailed Block List During Restore Validate ((null))
    KRB_FLWRES                 Details on Restore Flow ((null))
    KRB_FLWCPY                 Details on krbydd Flow ((null))
    KRB_FLWBCK                 Details on Backup Flow ((null))
    KRB_FLWUSAGE               RMAN Feature Usage ((null))
    KRB_OPTIM                  Unused Space Compression ((null))
  KRBABR                       Auto Block Media Recovery (krbabr)
  KRC                          Recovery Block Change Tracking (krc)
  KRC_CHANGES                  Recovery Block Change Tracking CHANGES ((null))
  IM                           in-memory ((null))
    IM_transaction             IM transaction layer ((null))
      IM_Txn_PJ                IM Txn Private Journal (ktmpj)
      IM_Txn_SJ                IM Txn Shared Journal (ktmsj)
      IM_Txn_JS                IM Txn Journal Scan (ktmjs)
      IM_Txn_Conc              IM Txn Concurrency (ktmc)
      IM_Txn_Blk               IM Txn Block (ktmb)
      IM_Txn_Read              IM Txn Read (ktmr)
    IM_space                   IM space layer ((null))
    IM_data                    IM data layer (kdm)
      IM_populate              IM populating (kdml)
      IM_background            IM background (kdmr)
      IM_scan                  IM scans ((null))
      IM_journal               IM journal ((null))
      IM_dump                  IM dump ((null))
      IM_FS                    IM faststart ((null))
      IM_optimizer             IM optimizer (kdmo)
  xdb_wallet                   XDB Wallet (kzs)
  PROGINT                      Programmatic Interfaces (kp)
    OCI                        OCI (oci, kpk, kpn)
    OPI                        OPI (opi)
    RPI                        RPI (rpi, kpr)
    NPI                        NPI (npi, nco, kpfs)
    Two_Task                   Two Task (osn, ksn)
    PROGINT_PLSQL              Programmatic Interfaces to/from PL/SQL (kkx, psd, pckl, plswa)
    Two_Phase                  Two-phase commit (k2)
    Conn_Pool                  Connection Pool (kppl)
    TSM                        Transparent Session Migration (kpm, kps)
    PROGINT_MISC               Progint Miscellaneous (kpo, kpbf, kpin)

Components in library GENERIC:
--------------------------
  Generic_VOS                  Generic VOS ((null))
    VOS_Heap_Manager           VOS Heap Manager ((null))
    VOS_Latches                VOS Latches ((null))
    VOS_GST                    VOS Generic Stack Trace (kgds)
  XML                          XML (qmxt, qmxq)
  Generic_XDB                  Generic XDB ((null))
    XDB_Repository             XDB Repository (qme)
    XDB_Protocols              XDB Protocols (qmh, qmf, qmn)
    XDB_Query                  XDB Query (qmxtra, qerxp)
    XDB_XMLIndex               XDB XMLIndex (qmxtri, qmixq)
    XDB_Schema                 XDB Schema (qmxtri, qmixq)
    XDB_XOB                    XDB XOB (qmx)
    XDB_CSX                    XDB CSX (qmcx)
      XDB_CSX_ENCODING         XDB CSX ENCODING (qmcxe, qmcxm)
      XDB_CSX_DECODING         XDB CSX DECODING (qmcxd)
      XDB_CSX_SELFCON          XDB CSX SELFCON (qmcxe)
    XDB_Default                XDB Default ((null))
  LOB                          LOB (koll, kola)
    LOB_Refcount               LOB Refcount (kolr)
    LOB_Default                LOB Default (kole,  kokl, koxs, kokla, koklm, koklv)
  KGH                          KGH Memory Allocator (kgh)
  KGF                          ASM Automatic Storage Management (kgf)
  LIBCACHE                     LIBCACHE (kgl, kql)
  OBJECTS                      OBJECTS ((null))
    OBJECTS_DDL                OBJECTS DDL (kokt)
    OBJECTS_Types              OBJECTS Types (kot, ko, ort)
    OBJECTS_Images             OBJECTS Images (koke, kot, kad)
    OBJECTS_Anydata            OBJECTS Anydata (kokla, kolo, kot, kad)
    OBJECTS_Streams            OBJECTS Streams (koxs)
    OBJECTS_Dict               OBJECTS Dictionary (kkdo, qcdo)
    OBJECTS_Semanal            OBJECTS Semantic Analysis (koks, qcso, qcto)
    OBJECTS_Default            OBJECTS Default ((null))
  KGFPM                        PATCH repository (kgfpm)
  KGFDVF                       Voting File Interface (kgfdvf)
  Shared_Objects               Shared Object Manager (pes)
    SO_Loader                  Native Code Loader (pesld)

Components in library CLIENT:
--------------------------
  Client_KPU                   Client KPU ((null))
    KPU_Memory                 KPU Memory ((null))
    KPU_TTC                    KPU TTC ((null))
    KPU_Relational             KPU Relational ((null))
    KPU_Objects                KPU Objects ((null))
    KPU_LOBS                   KPU LOBS ((null))
  progint_appcont              Prog Interfaces Application Continuity ((null))
    progint_appcont_rdbms      Prog Interfaces Application Continuity RDBMS-side ((null))
  SQLLDR_Load                  SQLLDR Load (ul)
  DPAPI_Load                   DPAPI Load (kpudp)

Components in library LIBCELL:
--------------------------
  Client_Library               Client Library ((null))
    Disk_Layer                 Disk Layer ((null))
    Network_Layer              Network Layer ((null))
    IPC_Layer                  IPC Layer ((null))

Components in library ORANET:
--------------------------
  TNSLSNR                      OraNet Listener ((null))
    NET_NSGR                   Network Service Generic Registration ((null))
    NET_NSGI                   TNI Network Service Generic Listener User-defined class ((null))
  CMAN                         OraNet Connection Manager ((null))
  NET                          OraNet Services ((null))
    NET_NI                     Network Interface Layer ((null))
    NET_NS                     Network Session Layer ((null))
    NET_NT                     Network Transport Layer ((null))
    NET_NTM                    Network Transport Mailbox Layer ((null))
    NET_NTP                    Network Transport IPC Layer ((null))
    NET_NTT                    Network Transport TCP/IP Layer ((null))
    NET_NTUS                   Network Transport Unix Domain Sockets Layer ((null))
    NET_NL                     Network Library ((null))
    NET_NA                     Network Authentication ((null))
    NET_NZ                     Network Zecurity ((null))
    NET_NTZ                    Network SSL ((null))
    NET_NU                     Network Trace Route Utility ((null))
    NET_NN                     Network Names ((null))

Components in library ADVCMP:
--------------------------
  ADVCMP_MAIN                  Archive Compression (kdz)
    ADVCMP_COMP                Archive Compression: Compression (kdzc, kdzh, kdza)
    ADVCMP_DECOMP              Archive Compression: Decompression (kdzd, kdzs)
      ADVCMP_DECOMP_HPK        Archive Compression: HPK (kdzk)
      ADVCMP_DECOMP_PCODE      Archive Compression: Pcode (kdp)

Components in library PLSQL:
--------------------------
  PLSQL_Apps                   PL/SQL Apps (di, pi, plitblm, scm, std, textio, wpiutil)
  PLSQL_Codegen                PL/SQL Codegen ((null))
    PLSQL_COG_IDL_Gen          PL/SQL Codegen IDL Gen (pdw)
    PLSQL_COG_Infrastructure   PL/SQL Codegen Infrastructure (pdz)
    PLSQL_COG_Native           PL/SQL Codegen Native (pdn)
    PLSQL_COG_Optimizer        PL/SQL Codegen Optimizer (pdx)
    PLSQL_COG_MCode_Gen        PL/SQL Codegen MCode Gen (pdy)
  PLSQL_Code_Execution         PL/SQL Code Execution (pb, pd, pe, pf, plst, pri)
  PLSQL_External_Proc          PL/SQL External Proc (pef, ociextp)
  PLSQL_IDL                    PL/SQL IDL (pdt, pt)
  PLSQL_ILMS                   PL/SQL ILMS (pgm)
  PLSQL_KNLDE                  PL/SQL KNLDE (pbbicd, pbp3g, pbs, pbt3g, peibp)
  PLSQL_KG_Interface           PL/SQL KG Interface (bam, hep, hsh, lis, par, phdr, pk)
  PLSQL_Infrastructure         PL/SQL Infrastructure (pci, pcm, ph, pl, pncutil, pp, ps, pu, tre)
  PLSQL_PSD                    PL/SQL PSD ((null))
    PLSQL_PSD_Generic          PL/SQL PSD Generic (psd, pso, psu)
    PLSQL_PSD_Standalones      PL/SQL PSD Standalones (p2c, pls, psx)
  PLSQL_Semantics              PL/SQL Semantics (ph2, pha, phn)
  PLSQL_Syntax                 PL/SQL Syntax (ph1)




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